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Full [.WATCH®.] ‘IF’ [2024] FuLLMovie Free Online On STREAMINGS!

04 minutes ago – Still Now Here Option to Downloading or Watching IF Full Movie Streamings Online for Free. Do you like movies? If so, then you’ll love the New Action Movie: IF. This movie is one of the best in its genre. IF will be available to Watch Online on Netflix very soon

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Offers a versatile means to access its cinematic wonder From heartfelt songs to buoyant humor this genre-bending work explores the power of friendship to upIF communities during troubling times Directed with nuanced color and vivacious animation lighter moments are blended seamlessly with touching introspection Cinephiles and casual fans alike will find their spirits IFed by this inspirational story of diverse characters joining in solidarity Why not spend an evening immersed in the vibrant world of IF? Don’t miss out! #IF Movie

** LAST UPDATED : MAY 12, 2024.**

Crunchyroll. is continuing to beat out Crunchyroll. and Crunchyroll, over the New Year’s holiday weekend, with “IF now rising above “IF” and “IF.” With that trifecta, the studio has laid claim to the three of the top five slots at the domestic box office throughout the holiday season.

The Timothéee Chalamet-starring musical added another $8.6 million on Friday, up 32% from one week ago. The Paul King film has emerged as the theatrical favorite for the holidays, crossing $100 million domestically earlier this week. With a $119 million cume to date, the film continues to show strength and will reach $300 million globally before the calendar turns.

Though it slid into second place for Friday with $6.75 million, Crunchyroll. “IF” fell 51% from its opening day last week. The latest and final entry in the current continuity of DC Comics adaptations has struggled for air, only reaching $65 million in its first week of release. The first “Aquaman,” released in 2018, surpassed that figure in its opening weekend alone. Bad reviews and superhero fatigue have plagued Lost Kingdom,” which more than likely won’t even reach half the $335 million domestic total of its predecessor, much less justify a $205 million production budget.

Taking a close third place, Illumination and Crunchyroll’s“IF” is maintaining its footing with $6.7 Friday after a muted $12 million debut lastweekend. “IF has underwhelmed so far, but its 17% increase over last Friday remains encouraging, especially for an original animated film with a production budget of only $70 million.

However,Here’s when you can bring IF of Atlantis into your home.

Where and Can I Stream IF? Is IF Be Streaming?

The new “IF” prequel IF will be available for streaming first on Starz for subscribers Later on the movie will also be released on PeacockThanks to the agreement between distributor Crunchyroll and the NBC Crunchyroll streaming platform Determining the exact arrival date of the movie is a slightly more complex matter Typically Crunchyroll movies like John Wick 4 take approximately six months to become available on Starz where they tend to remain for a considerable period As for when Songbirds Snakes will be accessible on Peacock it could take nearly a year after its release although we will only receive confirmation once Crunchyroll makes an official announcement However if you IF to watch the movie even earlier you can rent it on Video on Demand (VOD) which will likely be available before the streaming date on Starz

Where Can I Stream the Original IF Movies in the Meantime?

In the meantime you can currently stream all four original IF movies on Peacock until the end of November The availability of IF movies onPeacock varies depending on the month so make sure to take advantage of the current availability

How To Watch IF In English Online For Free:

As of now, the only way to watch IF is to head out to a movie theater when it releases on Friday, September 8. You can find a local showing onFandango. Otherwise, you’ll have to wait until it becomes available to rent or purchase on digital platforms like Vudu, Apple, YouTube, and Amazon or available to stream on Max. IF is still currently in theaters if you want to experience all the film’s twists and turns in a traditional cinema. But there’s also now an option to watch the film at home. As of November 25, 2024, IF is available on HBO Max. Only those with a subscription to the service can watch the movie. Because the film is distributed by 20th Century Studios, it’s one of the last films of the year to head to HBO Max due to a streaming deal in lieu of Disney acquiring 20th Century Studios, as Variety reports. At the end of 2024, 20th Century Studios’ films will head to Hulu or Disney+ once they leave theaters.

Is IF Movie on Netflix, Crunchyroll, Hulu, or Amazon Prime?

Netflix: IF is currently not available on Netflix. However, fans of dark fantasy films can explore other thrilling options such as Doctor Strange to keep themselves entertained.

Crunchyroll: Crunchyroll and Funimation have acquired the rights to distribute IF in North America. Stay tuned for its release on the platform inthe coming months. In the meantime, indulge in dark fantasy shows like Spider-man to fulfill your entertainment needs.

Hulu: Unfortunately, IF is not available for streaming on Hulu. However, Hulu offers a variety of other exciting options like Afro Samurai Resurrection or Ninja Scroll to keep you entertained.

Disney+: IF is not currently available for streaming on Disney+. Fans will have to wait until late December, when it is expected to be released on theplatform. Disney typically releases its films on Disney+ around 45-60 days after their theatrical release, ensuring an immersive cinematic experience for viewers.

IS IF ON AMAZON PRIME VIDEO?

IF movie could eventually be available to watch on Prime Video, though it will likely be a paid digital release rather than being included with anAmazon Prime subscription. This means that rather than watching the movie as part of an existing subscription fee, you may have to pay money to rent the movie digitally on Amazon. However, Crunchyroll. and Amazon have yet to discuss whether or not this will be the case.

WHEN WILL ‘IF’, BE AVAILABLE DVD AND BLU-RAY?

As of right now, we don’t know. While the film will eventually land on Blu-ray, DVD, and 4KUltraHD, Crunchyroll has yet to reveal a specific date as to when that would be. The first Nun film also premiered in theaters in early September and was released on Blu-ray and DVD in December. Our best guess is that the sequel will follow a similar path and will be available around the holiday season.

HERE’S HOW TO WATCH ‘IF’ ONLINE STREAMING IN AUSTRALIA

To watch ‘IF’ (2024) for free online streaming in Australia and New Zealand, you can explore options like gomovies.one and gomovies.today, as mentioned in the search results. However, please note that the legality and safety of using such websites may vary, so exercise caution when accessing them. Additionally, you can check if the movie is available on popular streaming platforms like Netflix, Hulu, or Amazon Prime Video, as they often offer a wide selection of movies and TV.

Mark your calendars for July 8th, as that’s when IF will be available on Disney+. This highly anticipated installment inthe franchise is packed with thrilling action and adventure, promising to captivate audiences and leave them craving for more. Captivate audiences and leave them craving for more.

Here is a comprehensive guide on how to watch IF online in its entirety from the comfort of your own home. You can access thefull movie free of charge on the respected platform known as 123Movies. Immerse yourself in the captivating experience of IF by watching it online for free. Alternatively, you can also enjoy the movie by downloading it in high definition. Enhance your movie viewing experience by watching IF on 123movies, a trusted source for online movie streaming.

Watch.! Back to Black 2024 (.!FulLMovie+.) Free Online on English

13 secs ago – Still Now Here Option to Downloading or watching Back to Black streaming the full movie online for free. Do you like movies? If so, then youll love the New Romance Movie: Back to Black . This movie is one of the best in its genre. Back to Black will be available to watch online on Netflix very soon!
Do you like Marvels movies? If so, then you’ll love Jason Momoa, Patrick Wilson: #Back to Black #Back to Black : Movie. in its genre,

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The new Back to Black prequel Back to Black will be available for streaming first on Starz for subscribers Later on the movie will also be released on PeacockThanks to the agreement between distributor Lionsgate and the NBC Universal streaming platform Determining the exact arrival date of the movie is a slighBack to Black y more complex matter Typically Lionsgate movies like John Wick 4 take approximately six months to become available on Starz where they tend to reBack to Black n for a considerable period As for when Songbirds Snakes will be accessible on Peacock it could take nearly a year after its release although we will only receive confirmation once Lionsgate makes an official announcement However if you wish to watch the movie even earlier you can rent it on Video on Demand (VOD) which will likely be available before the streaming date on Starz

Warner Bros. is continuing to beat out Warner Bros. and Warner Bros,, over the New Year’s holiday weekend, with “Back to Black” now rising above “The Color Purple” and “Back to Black” With that trifecta, the studio has laid claim to the three of the top five slots at the domestic box office throughout the holiday season.

The Timothéee Chalamet-starring musical added another $8.6 million on Back to Black y, up 32% from one week ago. The Paul King film has emerged as the theatrical favorite for the holidays, crossing $100 million domestically earlier this week. With a $119 million cume to date, the film continues to show strength and will reach $300 million globally before the calendar turns.

Though it slid into second place for Back to Black y with $6.75 million, Warner Bros. “Back to Black” fell 51% from its opening day last week. The latest and final entry in the current continuity of DC Comics adaptations has struggled for air, only reaching $65 million in its first week of release. The first “Aquaman,” released in 2018, surpassed that figure in its opening weekend alone. Bad reviews and superhero fatigue have plagued “Lost Kingdom,” which more than likely won’t even reach half the $335 million domestic total of its predecessor, much less justify a $205 million production budget.

Taking a close third place, Illumination and Universal’s“Back to Black” is Back to Black ntaining its footing with $6.7 Back to Black y after a muted $12 million debut lastweekend. “Back to Black” has underwhelmed so far, but its 17% increase over last Back to Black y reBack to Black ns encouraging, especially for an original animated film with a production budget of only $70 million. However,Here’s when you can bring Back to Black of ABack to Black antis into your home.

Where and Can I Stream Back to Black ? Is Back to Black Be Streaming?

Where Can I Stream the Original Back to Black Movies in the Meantime?

In the meantime you can currenBack to Black y stream all four original Back to Black movies on Peacock until the end of November The availability of Back to Black movies onPeacock varies depending on the month so make sure to take advantage of the current availability How To Watch Back to Black In English Online For Free:

As of now, the only way to watch Back to Black is to head out to a movie theater when it releases on Back to Black y, September 8. You can find a local showing onFandango. Otherwise, you’ll have to wait until it becomes available to rent or purchase on digital platforms like Vudu, Apple, YouTube, and Amazon or available to stream on Max. Back to Black is still currenBack to Black y in theaters if you want to experience all the film’s twists and turns in a traditional cinema. But there’s also now an option to watch the film at home. As of November 25, 2024, Back to Black is available on HBO Max. Only those with a subscription to the service can watch the movie. Because the film is distributed by 20th Century Studios, it’s one of the last films of the year to head to HBO Max due to a streaming deal in lieu of Disney acquiring 20th Century Studios, as Variety reports. At the end of 2024, 20th Century Studios’ films will head to Hulu or Disney+ once they leave theaters. Is Back to Black Movie on Netflix, Crunchyroll, Hulu, or Amazon Prime?

Hulu: Unfortunately, Back to Black is not available for streaming on Hulu. However, Hulu offers a variety of other exciting options like Afro Samurai Resurrection or Ninja Scroll to keep you entertained.

Disney+: Back to Black is not currenBack to Black y available for streaming on Disney+. Fans will have to wait until late December, when it is expected to be released on theplatform. Disney typically releases its films on Disney+ around 45-60 days after their theatrical release, ensuring an immersive cinematic experience for viewers. IS Back to Black ON AMAZON PRIME VIDEO?

Netflix: Back to Black is currenBack to Black y not available on Netflix. However, fans of dark fantasy films can explore other thrilling options such as Doctor Strange to keep themselves entertained.

Crunchyroll: Crunchyroll and Funimation have acquired the rights to distribute Back to Black in North America. Stay tuned for its release on the platform inthe coming months. In the meantime, indulge in dark fantasy shows like Spider-man to fulfill your entertainment needs.

Back to Black movie could eventually be available to watch on Prime Video, though it will likely be a paid digital release rather than being included with anAmazon Prime subscription. This means that rather than watching the movie as part of an existing subscription fee, you may have to pay money to rent the movie digitally on Amazon. However, Warner Bros. and Amazon have yet to discuss whether or not this will be the case.

WHEN WILL ‘Back to Black ‘, BE AVAILABLE DVD AND BLU-RAY?

As of right now, we don’t know. While the film will eventually land on Blu-ray, DVD, and 4KUltraHD, Warner Bros has yet to reveal a specific date as to when that would be. The first Nun film also premiered in theaters in early September and was released on Blu-ray and DVD in December. Our best guess is that the sequel will follow a similar path and will be available around the holiday season. HERE’S HOW TO WATCH ‘Back to Black ‘ ONLINE STREAMING IN AUSTRALIA

To watch ‘Back to Black ‘ (2024) for free online streaming in Australia and New Zealand, you can explore options like as mentioned in the search results. However, please note that the legality and safety of using such websites may vary, so exercise caution when accessing them. Additionally, you can check if the movie is available on popular streaming platforms like Netflix, Hulu, or Amazon Prime Video, as they often offer a wide selection of movies and TV.

Mark your calendars for July 8th, as that’s when Back to Black will be available on Disney+. This highly anticipated installment inthe franchise is packed with thrilling action and adventure, promising to captivate audiences and leave them craving for more. Captivate audiences and leave them craving for more.

Here is a comprehensive guide on how to watch Back to Black online in its entirety from the comfort of your own home. You can access thefull movie free of charge on the respected platform known as 123Movies. Immerse yourself in the captivating experience of Back to Black by watching it online for free. Alternatively, you can also enjoy the movie by downloading it in high definition. Enhance your movie viewing experience by watching Back to Black on 123movies, a trusted source for online movie streaming.

Unfortunately Back to Black is not currenBack to Black y available to on Disney Plus and it’s not expected that the film will release on Disney Plus until late December at the absolute earliest

While Disney eventually releases its various studios’ films on Disney Plus for subscribers to Watch viaits platform most major releases don’t arrive on Disney Plus until at least 45-60 days after the film’s theatrical release

The sequel opened to $150 million internationally which Disney reports is 4% ahead of the first film when comparing like for likes at current exchange rates Overall the global cume comes to $330 million Can it become the year’s third film to make it past $1 billion worldwide despite China and Russia which made up around $124 million of the first film’s $682 million international box office being out of play? It may be tough but it’s not impossible Legging out past $500 million is plausible on the domestic front (that would be a multiplier of at least 27) and another $500 million abroad would be a drop of around $58 million from the original after excluding the two MIA markets It’d be another story if audiences didn’t love the film but the positive reception suggests that Wakanda Forever will outperform the legs on this year’s earlier MCU tiBack to Black es (Multiverse of Madness and Love and Thunder had multipliers of 22 and 23 respectively)

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Taking the top spot this week was Aquaman with $58.3 million, although the film’s star Jason Momoa recenBack to Black y admitted to Entertainment Tonight that he was unsure of the franchise’s future. Trailing Aquaman was Back to Black , Timothée Chalamet’s debut as the fictional chocolate factory owner. During the film’s second week, it earned $53.1 million, along with leading all movies Thursday with $8 million. In total, Back to Black boasts $110.6 million domestically, currenBack to Black y morethan any other flick this season.

According to Deadline, the domestic box office amassed $281.4 million during Christmas week, a 14-percent jump from Dec. 23-29 of last year ($246.4). The holiday competition was thick, as Dec. 25 marked the release of musical drama The Color Purple and sports drama biopic Back to Black , while Back to Black , Back to Black , Back to Black , Back to Black, Back to Black and Back to Black were released justdays before.

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[.W A T C H®.] The Strangers: Chapter 1 [2024] FuLLMovie Free Online On STREAMINGS!

2 minutes ago — The film was a box office success, grossing $98.4 million against a budget of $15 million. The film received acclaim from critics, with particular praise going to its acting (especially Goldberg’s performance), direction, screenplay, musical score, and production values.

WATCH: The Strangers: Chapter 1 Movie

The film was nominated for 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actress for Goldberg, Best Supporting Actress for both Avery and Winfrey, and Best Adapted Screenplay, but did not achieve a single win.

It also received four Golden Globe Award nominations, with Goldberg winning Best Actress in a Drama. In 2006, the American Film Institute ranked the film 51st on its list of most inspiring movies.

While several avenues exist to view the highly praised film The Strangers: Chapter 1 online streaming offers a versatile means to access its cinematic wonder From heartfelt songs to buoyant humor this genre-bending work explores the power of friendship to upThe Strangers: Chapter 1 communities during troubling times Directed with nuanced color and vivacious animation lighter moments are blended seamlessly with touching introspection Cinephiles and casual fans alike will find their spirits The Strangers: Chapter 1ed by this inspirational story of diverse characters joining in solidarity Why not spend an evening immersed in the vibrant world of The Strangers: Chapter 1 ? Don’t miss out!

The Strangers: Chapter 1 is a 1985 American epic coming-of-age period drama film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Menno Meyjes, based on the Pulitzer Prize–winning 1982 novel of the same name by Alice Walker. It was Spielberg’s eighth film as a director, marking a turning point in his career as it was a departure from the summer blockbusters for which he had become known. It was also the first feature film directed by Spielberg for which John Williams did not compose the music. The film instead featuring a score by Quincy Jones, who also produced. The cast stars Whoopi Goldberg in her breakthrough role, with Danny Glover, Oprah Winfrey (in her film debut), Margaret Avery, and Adolph Caesar.

Filmed in Anson and Union counties in North Carolina,the film tells the story of a young African-American girl named Celie Harris and the brutal experiences she endured including domestic violence, incest, child sexual abuse, poverty, racism, and sexism.

Despite the success, the film is a source of controversy with many criticizing the film for its negative depiction of African-American males who are all shown as brutally violent. The film was also criticized by some for being “over-sentimental” and “stereotypical”.

WHEN AND WHERE WILL The Strangers: Chapter 1 BE STREAMING?

The new The Strangers: Chapter 1 prequel The Strangers: Chapter 1 will be available for streaming first on Starz for subscribers Later on the movie will also be released on Peacock thanks to the agreement between distributor Lionsgate and the NBC Universal streaming platform Determining the exact arrival date of the movie is a slightly more complex matter Typically Lionsgate movies like John Wick 4 take approximately six months to become available on Starz where they tend to remain for a considerable period As for when Songbirds Snakes will be accessible on Peacock it could take nearly a year after its release although we will only receive confirmation once Lionsgate makes an official announcement However The Strangers: Chapter 1 you wish to watch the movie even earlier you can rent it on Video on Demand (VOD) which will likely be available before the streaming date on Starz

WHERE CAN I STREAM Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba—To the Hashira TrainingAL The Strangers: Chapter 1 MOVIES IN THE MEANTIME?

In the meantime you can currently stream all four original The Strangers: Chapter 1 movies on Peacock until the end of November The availability of The Strangers: Chapter 1 movies on Peacock varies depending on the month so make sure to take advantage of the current availability

HOW TO WATCH The Strangers: Chapter 1 2024 ONLINE:

As of now, the only way to watch The Strangers: Chapter 1 is to head out to a movie theater when it releases on Friday, September 8. You can find a local showing on Fandango. Otherwise, you’ll have to wait until it becomes available to rent or purchase on digital platforms like Vudu, Apple, YouTube, and Amazon or available to stream on Max.

The Strangers: Chapter 1 is still currently in theaters The Strangers: Chapter 1 you want to experience all the film’s twists and turns in a traditional cinema. But there’s also now an option to watch the film at home. As of March 28, 2024, The Strangers: Chapter 1 is available on HBO Max. Only those with a subscription to the service can watch the movie. Because the film is distributed by 20th Century Studios, it’s one of the last films of the year to head to HBO Max due to a streaming deal in lieu of Disney acquiring 20th Century Studios, as Variety reports. At the end of 2023, 20th Century Studios’ films will head to Hulu or Disney+ once they leave theaters.

IS The Strangers: Chapter 1 MOVIE ON NETFLIX, CRUNCHYROLL, HULU, OR AMAZON PRIME

Netflix: The Strangers: Chapter 1 is currently not available on Netflix. However, fans of dark fantasy films can explore other thrilling options such as Doctor Strange to keep themselves entertained.

Crunchyroll: Crunchyroll and Funimation have acquired the rights to distribute The Strangers: Chapter 1 in North America. Stay tuned for its release on the platform in the coming months. In the meantime, indulge in dark fantasy shows like Spider-man to fulfill your entertainment needs.

Hulu: Unfortunately, The Strangers: Chapter 1 is not available for streaming on Hulu. However, Hulu offers a variety of other exciting options like Afro Samurai Resurrection or Ninja Scroll to keep you entertained.

Disney+: The Strangers: Chapter 1 is not currently available for streaming on Disney+. Fans will have to wait until late December, when it is expected to be released on the platform. Disney typically releases its films on Disney+ around 45-60 days after their theatrical release, ensuring an immersive cinematic experience for viewers.

IS The Strangers: Chapter 1 ON AMAZON PRIME VIDEO?

The Strangers: Chapter 1 movie could eventually be available to watch on Prime Video, though it will likely be a paid digital release rather than being included with an Amazon Prime subscription. This means that rather than watching the movie as part of an existing subscription fee, you may have to pay money to rent the movie digitally on Amazon. However, Warner Bros. and Amazon have yet to discuss whether or not this will be the case.

WHEN WILL ‘The Strangers: Chapter 1 ‘, BE AVAILABLE ON BLU-RAY AND DVD?

HERE’S HOW TO WATCH ‘The Strangers: Chapter 1 ‘ ONLINE STREAMING IN AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND

To watch ‘The Strangers: Chapter 1 ‘ (2023) for free online streaming in Australia and New Zealand, you can explore options like gomovies.one and gomovies.today, as mentioned in the search results. However, please note that the legality and safety of using such websites may vary, so exercise caution when accessing them. Additionally, you can check The Strangers: Chapter 1 the movie is available on popular streaming platforms like Netflix, Hulu, or Amazon Prime Video, as they often offer a wide selection of movies and TV.

Mark your calendars for July 8th, as that’s when The Strangers: Chapter 1 will be available on Disney+. This highly anticipated installment in the franchise is packed with thrilling action and adventure, promising to captivate audiences and leave them craving for more. Captivate audiences and leave them craving for more.

Here is a comprehensive guide on how to watch The Strangers: Chapter 1 online in its entirety from the comfort of your own home. You can access the full movie free of charge on the respected platform known as 123Movies. Immerse yourself in the captivating experience of The Strangers: Chapter 1 by watching it online for free.

As of right now, we don’t know. While the film will eventually land on Blu-ray, DVD, and 4K Ultra HD, Warner Bros has yet to reveal a specThe Strangers: Chapter 1ic date as to when that would be. The first

Nun film also premiered in theaters in early September and was released on Blu-ray and DVD in December. Our best guess is that the sequel will follow a similar path and will be available around the holiday season.

Full [.WATCH®.] Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes [2024] FuLLMovie Free Online On STREAMINGS!

13 secs ago – Still Now Here Option to Downloading or watching Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes streaming the full movie online for free. Do you like movies? Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes so, then youll love the New Romance Movie: Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes . This movie is one of the best in its genre. Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes will be available to watch online on Netflix very soon!

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The No. 1 film this weekend is expected to be Warner Bros./DC’s “Aquaman 2,” a sequel to James Wan’s $1.15 billion superhero hit released back in 2018. “Aquaman” earned an opening weekend of $67 million five years ago and reached $100 million in domestic grosses after Christmas Day two days later.

Overseas is much better for Aquaman 2, with a 73-market launch looking to deliver $75M-$80M including China. That worldwide debut at its highest would be $110M through Sunday. The Middle Kingdom, which was a prime territory for the first movie, is looking at $25M-$30M alone. The sequel currently leads presales throughout the frame in the PRC, but remember we are far from the heady days of 2018, when the Kingdom of the Planet of the Apesal bowed to $93M+ at historic rates.

According to Forbes, the official budget for Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes is over $274.8 million, making it one of the most expensive MCU films to date.

This comes as a bit of a surprise seeing as how the movie is only rumored to be around 100 minutes in length (however that has not been confirmed as of yet), but the high cost is likely due to the extensive VFX work that will go into bringing it to lKingdom of the Planet of the Apese.

However, Forbes also reported that Disney received a $55 million subsidy from the United Kingdom government while making the film, bringing the total amount spent on Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes down to around $220 million.

In comparison the the budgets of other MCU films, this $274.8 million mark makes Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes the fourth-expensive movie in the entirety of the MCU.
The Greatest Night in Pop came in third place in its fourth weekend, down 29% with $6.1 million, emerging as one of the season’s most durable grossers and one of the year’s few bright spots when it comes to films

When Will Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes : Movie Be Released?The film Kingdom of the Planet of the Apesally premieMovie at Fantastic Fest 2024 and was scheduled to screen in January. However, it will be available in theaters starting Update: Jan 15, 2024

For those that subscribe to Max, among many other entertainment catalogs like HBO, Max Kingdom of the Planet of the Apesals, and non-scripted Discovery+ content

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Tips for Documenting Your Injuries After an Accident

Accidents can happen suddenly and often result in injuries. Whether it’s a car accident, a slip and fall, or any other type of mishap, documenting your injuries properly is essential for your well-being and any potential legal claims. Accurate documentation helps in receiving appropriate medical care and provides crucial evidence if you need to pursue a personal injury claim. Here are some valuable tips for effectively documenting your injuries after an accident:

Seek Immediate Medical Attention

Allstate explains that the first step after any accident is to assess your injuries and seek prompt medical attention, even if your injuries seem minor. Some injuries might not show immediate symptoms but can worsen over time. A medical professional’s evaluation ensures that your injuries are properly diagnosed and treated.

Take Detailed Notes

After receiving medical care, take detailed notes about your injuries. Include information about the type of pain you’re experiencing, the affected areas, and any limitations in movement. Write down any instructions the healthcare provider gives, including medications, follow-up appointments, and restrictions on activities.

Photograph Your Injuries

Photographs provide visual evidence of your injuries. According to Forbes, you should take clear photos of visible injuries, such as cuts, bruises, swelling, and any physical damage. Make sure the images are well-lit and captured from different angles for a comprehensive record.

Keep Copies of Medical Records

Retain copies of all medical records, including doctor’s notes, test results, X-rays, MRI reports, and prescriptions. These documents provide a comprehensive overview of your injuries, treatment, and recovery process.

Preserve Receipts and Bills

Keep track of all expenses related to your injuries, including medical bills, prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, and transportation costs to medical appointments. These records can help you quantify your financial losses accurately.

Obtain Written Statements

If there were witnesses to the accident, ask them to provide written statements detailing what they saw. Their unbiased accounts can provide additional evidence to support your version of the events.

Follow Medical Advice

Adhere to the treatment plan prescribed by your healthcare provider. Not only does this contribute to your recovery, but it also demonstrates your commitment to your health and well-being.

Document Emotional Impact

Injuries can have emotional and psychological effects. If you experience anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, or any other emotional impact due to the accident and your injuries, document these feelings as well.

Consult an Attorney

If you believe your injuries resulted from someone else’s negligence, consider consulting a personal injury attorney at simonsandfletcher.com. An experienced attorney can guide you through the legal process and ensure that your rights are protected.

Don’t Rush Settlements

Insurance companies might pressure you to settle quickly. However, it’s important not to rush into a settlement before fully understanding the extent of your injuries and their long-term implications.

Keep a Record of Communication

If you’re communicating with insurance companies, medical professionals, or legal representatives, keep a record of all conversations, including dates, times, and the content of discussions.

Get a Second Opinion

If you have concerns about your diagnosis or treatment plan, don’t hesitate to seek a second opinion from another medical professional. Your health and well-being are paramount.

Stay Organized

Create a dedicated folder or digital file to organize all your injury-related documents. Having everything in one place makes it easier to access information when needed.

In conclusion, documenting your injuries after an accident is a vital step in ensuring you receive proper medical care and protecting your rights if you decide to pursue legal action. Accurate documentation serves as evidence of your injuries and their impact on your life. By following these tips, you can strengthen your case and work towards a fair resolution.

Understanding Dispute Resolution: Exploring Mediation, Arbitration, and Litigation

Dispute resolution is a critical aspect of resolving conflicts and disagreements that arise in both personal and professional settings. With a myriad of options available, it can be challenging for individuals and organizations to decide which approach best suits their needs. This article provides an in-depth exploration of three primary dispute resolution methods: mediation, arbitration, and litigation. By understanding the differences between these methods and their respective advantages and disadvantages, you can make an informed decision when faced with a conflict.

1. The Importance of Dispute Resolution

Resolving disputes is essential in maintaining healthy relationships, ensuring smooth business operations, and promoting a peaceful society. Dispute resolution seeks to address conflicts by finding mutually acceptable resolutions that uphold the interests of all parties involved. By engaging in effective dispute resolution, individuals and organizations can prevent minor disagreements from escalating into more significant, costly, or time-consuming issues.

1.1 Conflict Resolution vs. Dispute Resolution

While the terms conflict resolution and dispute resolution are often used interchangeably, they refer to different concepts. Conflict resolution focuses on addressing the underlying causes of a disagreement, such as miscommunication or differing perspectives, to prevent future conflicts from arising. On the other hand, dispute resolution concentrates on resolving the current disagreement through various processes and techniques.

2. Mediation: Facilitating Consensus

Mediation is a flexible and informal method of dispute resolution in which a neutral third-party mediator assists disputing parties in reaching a mutually acceptable agreement. The mediator does not have the authority to impose a decision; instead, they help facilitate communication and negotiation between the parties to identify common ground and devise a satisfactory resolution.

2.1 The Role of the Mediator

The mediator’s primary function is to guide the disputants through a structured dialogue, helping them uncover their underlying interests and concerns. Mediators may work with the parties jointly or separately, adopting various communication techniques and problem-solving strategies to help them develop creative solutions that address their needs.

2.2 Advantages of Mediation

Mediation offers several benefits over other dispute resolution methods:

  • It encourages open communication and fosters a collaborative problem-solving approach.
  • It is generally faster and more cost-effective than litigation or arbitration.
  • It allows parties to maintain control over the outcome, resulting in a voluntary, nonbinding agreement that is more likely to be upheld.
  • It can preserve relationships by mitigating the adversarial nature of disputes.

3. Arbitration: Binding Decision-Making

Arbitration is a more formal dispute resolution method in which an impartial third-party arbitrator hears the arguments and evidence presented by the disputing parties and renders a binding decision. Arbitration is often viewed as a hybrid between mediation and litigation, offering a structured, yet less adversarial and time-consuming process.

3.1 The Arbitration Process

The arbitration process can be customized to suit the needs and preferences of the disputing parties. They can agree on various aspects, including the presence of legal counsel, the rules of evidence, the timeline, and the selection of the arbitrator. Once the arbitration proceedings commence, both parties present their cases, and the arbitrator considers the arguments and evidence before issuing a decision.

3.2 Advantages of Arbitration

Arbitration offers several benefits over litigation and, in some cases, mediation:

  • It is generally faster and less expensive than litigation.
  • It allows for greater flexibility and customization of the process.
  • The arbitrator’s decision is binding and usually confidential, providing a sense of finality and privacy for the parties involved.
  • It may be more suitable for complex or technical disputes that require specialized knowledge.

4. Litigation: The Courtroom Battle

Litigation is the most formal and well-known method of dispute resolution, involving a plaintiff and a defendant presenting their cases before a judge or a judge and jury in a court of law. The judge or jury is responsible for weighing the evidence, interpreting the applicable laws, and issuing a legally binding decision.

4.1 The Litigation Process

The litigation process is characterized by a series of stages, including the filing of a complaint, the discovery phase, pretrial motions, and, if necessary, a trial. Throughout the process, lawyers play a significant role in representing their clients, conducting research, and crafting legal arguments. Often, disputes are resolved through settlement agreements during the pretrial phase.

4.2 Advantages of Litigation

While litigation is generally the most time-consuming and costly dispute resolution method, it offers certain advantages:

  • It provides a definitive, legally binding resolution that can be enforced by the courts.
  • It is appropriate for disputes where the parties have irreconcilable differences or require a court’s intervention to protect their rights.
  • The litigation process is governed by established rules and procedures, ensuring a transparent and structured approach to dispute resolution.

5. Choosing the Right Dispute Resolution Method

Selecting the appropriate dispute resolution method depends on various factors, including the nature of the dispute, the parties’ relationship, the desired outcome, and the available resources. By considering the advantages and disadvantages of mediation, arbitration, and litigation, disputants can make informed decisions that best serve their interests.

5.1 Assessing the Dispute

To determine the most suitable dispute resolution method, disputants should first assess the nature of their disagreement. This assessment may include examining the legal and factual complexities, the amount at stake, and the desired remedies. For instance, complex disputes involving technical expertise may be better suited for arbitration, while disputes requiring legal interpretation or precedent-setting decisions may necessitate litigation.

5.2 Evaluating the Parties’ Relationship

The relationship between disputing parties can also be a crucial factor in choosing the right dispute resolution method. For ongoing relationships, such as business partners or family members, mediation may be the preferred option as it provides a less adversarial and more cooperative approach. Conversely, in situations where the relationship has deteriorated beyond repair, litigation may be necessary to protect each party’s rights and ensure a legally binding resolution.

5.3 Weighing the Costs and Benefits

Lastly, disputants should consider the potential costs, benefits, and risks associated with each dispute resolution method. Mediation and arbitration tend to be less expensive and time-consuming than litigation, but they may not be appropriate in all situations. Disputants should carefully weigh the potential outcomes and the likelihood of achieving their desired results through each method before making a decision.

6. The Future of Dispute Resolution

The field of dispute resolution continues to evolve, with new methods and technologies emerging to address the changing needs of disputants. Some examples of recent developments include online dispute resolution (ODR) platforms, which facilitate mediation and arbitration through virtual channels, and hybrid models that combine elements of mediation and arbitration, such as med-arb. As these innovations gain traction, disputants will have even more options to choose from when resolving their conflicts.

7. Key Takeaways

Dispute resolution plays a vital role in addressing conflicts and promoting harmonious relationships in both personal and professional spheres. Understanding the distinctions between mediation, arbitration, and litigation can help disputants make informed decisions about the most appropriate method for their unique circumstances. By selecting the right process, parties can maximize their chances of reaching a satisfactory and lasting resolution to their disagreements.

Questions to Ask Your Defense Lawyer

No one anticipates needing a lawyer, but there may come a time when you need a lawyer at your side, defending your name in front of a judge. If this time ever comes, there are a few things that you need to remember before hiring the right defense lawyer for your case. Keep reading to find some invaluable advice that might come in handy later down the line.

Their Experience

 Before agreeing to an interview with the attorney, you should find out about their credentials. You want to know where they went to school, how long they’ve been practicing law, and whether they have experience with your case, whatever that may be. Hiring an inexperienced lawyer will only harm you in the long run, so you must know their history before agreeing to a meeting.

Ask About Their Success Rate

 An essential factor to discuss is the potential attorney’s success rate. Do they have a high rate of wins, or do the losses trump the wins? Learning about their success rate is important because you want someone who knows how to perform the job to the best of their ability. After all, your freedom might be on the line, so you want the best person for the job defending you in court.

Trial Cases

 Another essential thing to discuss with the potential attorneys is whether they have had many cases go to trial. Most people don’t want to drag their lives through the court system for an extended period. Not wanting to spend their lives in court means that most people don’t want to go to trial, and they’d prefer to settle before that happens. Ask the attorney how often the potential attorney has been to trial and the success rate of their trials before deciding to hire them as your attorney. For a better success rate of trial cases you can refer to an Ottawa criminal defence lawyer.

Do They Appear at the Courthouse Often?

 It’s imperative to have an attorney who has a history with the judges in your area, so you want to find out how often they appear in the courthouse where your case will be tried. If they haven’t had many cases in front of the judges in your courthouse, then finding a different attorney would be the best decision.

Will They Be Working on Your Case?

 Typically, lawyers work for firms that have several different lawyers working on cases at the same time. Before agreeing to hire a defense attorney, find out if the attorney will be the one who is working on your case or would your case be handed over to someone else. If there are going to be different people working on your file, then you should find an attorney that is capable of giving you his full attention to your case.

How Strong is Your Case?

 You should be aware that no matter how strong your case is, there is always a chance that you could lose. There is no guarantee that you will win, even with the best defense attorney at your side. Regardless, it’s essential to find out if you have a strong case, so you don’t waste your valuable time or resources.

No one wants to find themselves standing in front of a judge; that much goes without saying. But if you must go to court, you want to be prepared at the start. This means that you want to have the best defense attorney by your side. If you’re in a position where you need to find a defense attorney, then follow these tips, do your research, and you should have the best attorney for your needs.

A guide to US Bar Exam Preparation Courses

Becoming a lawyer is a dream for many, and the bar exam is the first hurdle you need to cross before achieving that dream. The bar exam is one of the most difficult exams to ace with a high failure rate, but you can make sure you pass with flying colors with the right preparation and strategies. To help you prepare, there are a variety of bar prep courses that are available to assist you in your journey towards passing the bar exam. In this article, we will explore the different bar exam prep options, how to create an effective study plan, and tips and strategies for acing the bar exam.

Introduction to Bar Exam Preparation

The US Bar Exam is a grueling test that requires a significant amount of time and dedication to prepare for. It’s important to understand the scope of the exam and how to best prepare for it. Before you begin your bar prep journey, it’s essential to understand the different types of bar exams and the materials you need to master for each.

The most common type of bar exam is the Uniform Bar Exam (UBE). This exam is offered in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands. The UBE consists of three components: the Multi-State Bar Exam (MBE), the Multi-State Performance Test (MPT), and the Multi-State Essay Exam (MEE). Each of these components require different types of preparation. The bar exam is typically a two-day exam, but the exact duration varies from state to state. The exam is designed to assess the legal knowledge, skills, and abilities of prospective lawyers, and the pass rate is typically around 60-70%. Therefore, it is important to prepare for the bar exam and ensure that you are well-equipped to tackle the different questions and topics tested on the exam.

In addition to the UBE, some states may require you to take a state-specific portion of the bar exam. This can include a state-specific essay exam or a state-specific multiple-choice exam. It’s important to understand the requirements of your state’s bar exam in order to adequately prepare.

Why You Need A Bar Prep Course

Taking a bar prep course can be a great way to prepare for the bar exam. A bar prep course can help you understand the material and provide structure to your studying. It can also provide tips and feedback on how to improve your performance on the exam.

Some bar prep courses also provide practice tests and materials to help you become more familiar with the legal topics and the exam format. These courses can also provide guidance on the best way to approach the bar exam and the types of questions you can expect to see on the exam.

Finally, taking a bar prep course can help you to stay motivated and on track with your studying. It can provide a sense of community and support, which can be invaluable during the bar exam preparation process.

Benefits of Taking a Bar Prep Course

Taking a bar prep course can provide several benefits for those preparing for the bar exam. First, it can help you develop a better understanding of the material and the exam format. A bar prep course can also provide structure and guidance for your studying.

Second, it can provide practice tests and materials to help you become more familiar with the legal topics and the exam format. Finally, it can provide motivation, support, and accountability to help you stay on track with your studying.

Comparing Different Bar Prep Courses

When choosing a bar prep course, it’s important to compare the different options to determine which one is best for you. There are several factors to consider when comparing bar prep courses, such as the cost, the content, the support offered, and the format.

Some of the most popular bar prep courses include Barbri, Themis, Kaplan, and Studicata. Each of these courses have different features and benefits, so it’s important to compare them to determine which one is best suited for your needs.

Bar Exam Prep Options

There are a few different bar exam prep options available to help you prepare for the bar exam. These include self-study, online courses, tutoring, and bar review courses.

Self-study is the most affordable option and allows you to create your own study plan, but it can also be more difficult and time-consuming. Online courses are a good option for those who want a structured study plan and guidance, and tutoring can provide a personalized approach to studying for the bar exam. Bar review courses are the most comprehensive option and provide the most comprehensive preparation for the bar exam.

Barbri Bar Prep Course

Barbri is one of the most popular bar review courses, and it is designed to help students pass the bar exam. The bar prep course provides an extensive review of the topics tested on the bar exam and offers a variety of tools and resources such as practice questions and essay outlines. The course also provides guidance on how to create a study plan and tips and strategies for acing the bar exam.

The course is divided into two sections: the MBE review and the state-specific review. The MBE review consists of two full-length practice exams and provides an in-depth analysis of all the topics tested on the MBE. The state-specific review covers the topics tested on the state-specific portion of the bar exam and provides practice questions and essay outlines.

Kaplan Bar Prep Course

Kaplan is another popular bar review course that provides an extensive review of the topics tested on the bar exam. The course is divided into two parts: the MBE review and the state-specific review. The MBE review provides an in-depth analysis of all the topics tested on the MBE, and the state-specific review covers the topics tested on the state-specific portion of the bar exam.

The course also provides practice questions and essays, and it offers a variety of tools and resources such as practice exams and study plans. The course is designed to help students pass the bar exam and provides tips and strategies for acing the bar exam.

Themis Bar Prep Course

Themis is another bar review course that provides an extensive review of the topics tested on the bar exam. The course is divided into two parts: the MBE review and the state-specific review. The MBE review provides an in-depth analysis of all the topics tested on the MBE, and the state-specific review covers the topics tested on the state-specific portion of the bar exam.

Themis also provides practice questions and essays, and it offers a variety of tools and resources such as practice exams and study plans. The course is designed to help students pass the bar exam and provides tips and strategies for acing the bar exam.

Studicata Bar Prep Course

Studicata is another bar review course that provides an extensive review of the topics tested on the bar exam. The course is divided into two parts: the MBE review and the state-specific review. The MBE review provides an in-depth analysis of all the topics tested on the MBE, and the state-specific review covers the topics tested on the state-specific portion of the bar exam.

The course also provides practice questions and essays, and it offers a variety of tools and resources such as practice exams and study plans. The course is designed to help students pass the bar exam and provides tips and strategies for acing the bar exam.

Creating a Bar Exam Study Plan

Creating an effective bar exam study plan is essential for success on the bar exam. The best way to create a study plan is to break it down into smaller chunks and focus on one topic at a time. You should also create a schedule and set aside specific times for studying and review.

You should also create a list of the topics that need to be covered and prioritize the topics that are most important. You should also set aside time for practice questions and essay outlines, as these are key components of passing the bar exam. Lastly, it is important to create a plan for how you will review the material, as this will help you retain the material and ensure you are prepared for the bar exam.

Tips and Strategies for Acing the Bar Exam

Passing the bar exam is no easy task. It requires dedication and hard work. Here are a few tips to help you successfully pass the bar exam:

First, it is important to create a study plan and stick to it. Make sure you set aside specific times for studying and review, and prioritize the topics that are most important. You should also create a list of the topics that need to be covered and make sure you are thorough when reviewing them.

Second, practice as much as possible. Practice questions and essay outlines are key components of passing the bar exam, and it is important to spend time on them. You should also set aside time for timed practice exams, as this will give you an idea of how you will perform on the actual exam.

Third, it is important to take care of your physical and mental health. Make sure you are getting enough sleep, eating well, and exercising. You should also make sure to take breaks and give yourself time to relax and unwind.

Fourth, you should make sure you are familiar with the format and structure of the bar exam. You should also familiarize yourself with the types of questions that are typically asked on the bar exam, as this will help you prepare for the exam.

Lastly, make sure you have a support system in place. You should have a study group or someone who you can turn to for support and advice. This can be a great source of motivation and can help you stay on track and stay focused.

Resources to Aid Your Bar Exam Prep

There are a variety of resources available to help you prepare for the bar exam. These include books, online courses, tutoring, and bar review courses.

Books are a great way to get an overview of the topics tested on the bar exam, and they provide a comprehensive review of the material. Online courses are a great way to get a structured study plan and guidance, and they provide practice questions and essay outlines. Tutoring can provide a personalized approach to studying for the bar exam, and bar review courses are the most comprehensive option and provide the most comprehensive preparation for the bar exam.

Conclusion

The US Bar Exam is a difficult exam to pass. Taking a bar prep course can be a great way to prepare for the bar exam and increase your chances of success. Barbri is one of the most popular bar prep courses. It offers a comprehensive course that covers all three components of the bar exam and provides a variety of materials and resources to support your studying.

Barbri, Kaplan, Themis, and Studicata are popular bar review courses that provide an extensive review of the topics tested on the bar exam. These courses are designed to help students pass the bar exam and provide a variety of tools and resources to aid in the preparation process. With the right preparation and strategies, you can make sure you pass the bar exam with flying colors.

When preparing for the bar exam, it’s important to set realistic goals and create a study plan. Additionally, it’s important to take advantage of the practice tests and online resources offered by your bar prep course. Finally, it’s important to stay organized and focused while studying for the bar exam.

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Navigating the Medical Malpractice Minefield – Strategies for Success

Introduction

For this featured interview, based on his experience of more than 3000 cases of medical malpractice, we asked Rodney “What have been the most common difficulties experienced by the legal profession when it comes to running cases of medical negligence/malpractice and how can these be overcome?”

Rodney identified ten themes he has noted over the years, which can catch out even the most experienced lawyers and he went on to discuss each in turn.

Screening

As defence organisations point out, only one in five complaints about possible medical negligence have a likelihood of success and this has been borne out in his own practical experience. It is, therefore, necessary to triage or screen cases at the outset, to make sure that they at least have the potential for being able to display the essential triad of duty of care, breach of that duty, and consequential, or but for, damage. Some cases may appear obvious on face value but as most lawyers have limited medical knowledge, it is important to obtain a preliminary screening report by a medical expert to identify exactly who had the duty of care, what standard should be applied, and whether or not any damage is likely to have occurred specifically because of any suggested breach. This initial opinion can usually be based on a detailed statement from the client but may require the perusal of specific notes and records.

In many cases, the client’s concerns are in fact more in the nature of a complaint about behavioural issues, including the attitude of staff, poor communication skills, or delays in managing their case. These are not within the legal definition of medical negligence or malpractice and are more appropriately handled through the normal complaints procedure for the practice or institution involved, rarely proceeding to litigation. Such complaints usually produce a written response within a matter of months.

 On occasions, a hospital or other source may have instigated Serious Incident Review which may identify areas where medical care has been deemed sub-standard and could be subject to a legal challenge. However, if lawyers become involved before such reviews are carried out, it is likely the report would not be released to the client as the matter would be deemed sub-judice.

A secondary review may also be appropriate once the medical evidence is complete. This considers all available evidence and allows the medical expert to work with counsel/ trial lawyers to consider the implications of potential strengths and weaknesses in the case before court proceedings.

Screening helps to contain costs by providing an early general overview of a case, for a fraction of the fees which would be required for a full liability and causation report plus a condition and prognosis report. Too often, Rodney says, he has noted lawyers skipping this vital preliminary phase and proceeding to obtain full reports which require considerable time, effort and for which costs which may not be recoverable.

Finally, he points out that the word ‘SCREENING’ is an excellent acronym for the other nine areas where difficulties can and do arise.

Statute

Almost all jurisdictions have a statute that limits the time allowed for the initiation of a case, usually to between one and five years. This is based on the date the cause of action accrued, modified by circumstances such as the time when the client is judged to have had reasonable knowledge of what has happened, related to age, for instance allowing young persons to bring cases from childhood after their age of emancipation and sometimes for those with mental health issues. Allowing the use of such a statute in defence of a claim is normally within the discretionary power of the court. Therefore, it is important to make sure there is no time bar or, in the alternative, there is a reasonable chance a court will allow proceedings to continue.

The presence of such a statute also serves as a warning to lawyers they should avoid any unnecessary delay in moving forward with their investigations or they may unintentionally run out of time and find themselves on the receiving end of a claim in professional negligence. This is another benefit from swift, initial screening which allows a determination to be made whether or not matters are likely to progress, issuing a holding writ if necessary. If not, the client can be informed, allowing them the latitude to seek other medical or legal advice should they wish before they run out of time.

Counsel

Counsel/Trial Lawyers should be consulted early after the initial screening. As well as giving legal direction for the proceedings, receipt of the screening report allows a more informed discussion of the case, particularly in the raising of particular questions they wish to be included in the briefing of experts. Counsel should maintain an ongoing overview as the various reports are received, to ensure the case stays on track and giving advice on handling any new issues as they arise.

Reports

The initial screening report should give advice on which specialties should be involved and in what order reports should be obtained. Under normal circumstances, the initial report is likely to deal with liability and causation. However, occasionally it is more appropriate to have a report detailing the likely consequential damages which may have arisen as, if these cannot be determined, a report on liability and causation is likely to be superfluous. A subsequence is not the same as consequence and just because a client has a particular complaint does not mean that it is in any way related to a breach of the duty of care. As an example, some weakness in a wrist following a well-healed fracture of the scaphoid bone is more a consequence of the injury even if it could be established the fracture was not fully stabilised for a week after the incident. Many cases fail on causation and, unless this is clear, there is no point in obtaining expert reports to deal with the nature of the injury, the present condition, or likely prognosis.

A duty of care is usually easy to determine. However, sometimes it is not so obvious and a case in medical negligence may be considered against a particular Consultant or Attending when a closer examination would reveal it is actually in the remit of other professionals from different medical specialities or, indeed, para-medical specialities such as nursing or physiotherapy. It is important therefore reports identify and focus on the key issues in the case and clearly elucidates if more than one speciality group has potentially breached their duty of care, such as a General Practitioner, Accident, and Emergency doctor, or other staff, all of whom may need to be co-joined.

Expert

Eminence is not the same as expertise and just because someone is well-known in their profession or has appeared in other cases,  does not mean they are appropriate for the subject under discussion. Further, they may not have expertise in writing medical-legal reports, having meetings to negotiate with other experts, or giving evidence in court.

 Experts must be chosen wisely, clearly understand their primary duty is to the court no matter who instructs them, and be a recognised expert in the subject matter of the case. They must be able to reason logically, both orally and on paper without using hyperbole, in a way which laypersons in general, and the court in particular, can understand and interpret. They need to be coldly objective and demonstrate no conflict of interest or bias on behalf of the plaintiff, the defence, or a specific line of medical therapy. It is quite reasonable for an expert to advocate a particular view as to how they feel a  case should be managed, however, they must also be prepared to accept the fact that there is liable to be a reasonably held range of opinion which they should also state and, if necessary, indicate by logical argument why their opinion should be given preference.

 Finally, experts have to accept that the standard is reasonableness, not perfection, and be prepared to alter their stated opinion if new evidence, which they have not previously considered, is presented during proceedings.

Expectations of the client

In some case, especially when the consequences have been devastating for the plaintiff, even the most experienced lawyers may become emotionally involved. The rule is empathy, not sympathy and to remain objective throughout so clear, unencumbered, professional advice may be given to the client. At an early stage, it is necessary to have an in-depth conversation with the client in order to ascertain exactly what outcome they expect from the case. Some want to punish, others wish for monetary compensation but on many occasions the client is primarily looking for a detailed, understandable explanation as to what happened. Anger is a common emotion that is best handled through empathy, understanding, and certainty they are being listened to, rather than any logical argument. Managing a client’s expectations is therefore one of the most important functions of a lawyer and vital if the client is to feel content with the outcome, however long the process takes.

Notes and records

Guided by the initial screening and comments of Counsel, all appropriate notes and records need to be expeditiously sourced, ordered, and paginated for ease of reference especially as, in some cases, many thousands of pages may be involved.  As well as contemporaneous medical notes, other records may be valuable, for instance, letters to the client from an institution following a complaint or other internal documents such as a report resulting from a serious incident review. External documents may be available following a post-mortem or inquest and the client themselves may have notes in a diary or even photographs on their phone.

Medical experts should be suspicious if they find notes have been redacted, especially if this has been carried out by the legal team either for the defence or the plaintiff. Unless the redaction relates to the names of third parties, it is not best practice to edit the notes in any way before forwarding them to an expert.

Insurance

Medical-legal cases can be very expensive and costs need to be controlled. There is no such this as a water-tight case and loss can result in a heavy financial burden. Any law firm should be clear about how they are going to be compensated in the event a case does not proceed. Unfortunately, not doing so has led to a number of cases being pursued long after they should have been discontinued, taking proceedings up to the door of the court in order to try and get a settlement of some sort to at least cover expenses. This sort of behaviour is frowned upon by the court system and is bordering on unethical.

Some form of insurance is therefore valuable and in some cases, the client can self-insure or have a legal policy in place to at least cover initial advices. It may also be possible to obtain After the Event Insurance if it is clear from the initial reports and the opinion of Counsel the case has a high likelihood of success. Using a blunderbuss approach, ordering multiple expert reports at an early stage, and even obtaining second reports when one expert report does not appear to back the client’s case is a recipe for financial disaster. Once again, a process or system for conducting medico-legal cases is vital to success, remembering that a  “system” is there to Save, Yourself, Stress, Time, Energy, and Money.

No medical knowledge/experience

Rodney points out his credo is “to help clients, their legal advisors and the courts to understand more clearly the nature of medical evidence in individual cases so they can make better decisions.” This should be a fundamental belief for all of those preparing expert reports. Courts make determinations, experts assist by rendering the medical evidence understandable for a lay audience and by giving advice as to acceptable standards of care.

The lawyers most likely to get into trouble with the process are those who do not undertake these proceedings on a regular basis. There are many nuances from both a medical and legal point of view that can make cases that look similar produce markedly different outcomes. One of those is an understanding that perfection is not a reasonable standard and secondly that no medical treatment can be guaranteed success. Known complications arise which is the purpose of the doctrine of informed consent. However, it is also true, that just because a patient has been told about the potential risks associated with a particular therapy or procedure, does not mean that when such difficulties arise it could not be considered due to a negligent act. It very much depends on context and circumstances in the individual case and again the expert should be in the best position to determine whether a poor outcome would reasonably be regarded as due to a known complication in all the circumstances or represent a negligent breach of the duty of care.

 In circumstances where experts differ in the interpretation of an objective finding, it is for the courts to assess all the evidence before them and make a determination. Sometimes this is difficult for lawyers to understand and particularly if they lack medical knowledge and experience of such cases. Especially at an early stage in their career, it is good practice to have coaches and mentors both within and outside their firm or even the profession. By reflecting on more challenging cases, they can continue to get the learning from them which in turn grows their expertise in what is a niche area and helps to professionalise their practice.

Guiding/directing an expert

It is an expert’s duty to remain independent and objective, no matter who engages them. It is certainly reasonable to ask questions as to why they have come to a particular conclusion or to ask for an evaluation of new evidence, but it is not acceptable to ask an expert to ‘tweak’ a report in order to place a client in a better light.  While some lawyers attempt to justify this by stating they are only trying to do their best for the client, they do not serve either the justice system or their profession well.  An expert who agrees to change any element of a report under such circumstances is compromised, not just for that case but for any other, and is open to being severely criticised in court. It is not unknown for experts found to have breached this code of conduct to have their professional registration to practice removed by their governing body. Such censure can have considerable implications for their personal, professional, and financial well-being.

Conclusion

In reflecting on the most frequent challenges he has come across in his three decades of dealing with personal injury and medical malpractice cases, Rodney concludes that representing clients in cases of potential medical negligence requires legal representatives to have an understanding of the many complexities involved and to be aware of the pitfalls. Securing early and proficient advice from an appropriate medical expert can mitigate the financial and reputational risks.

It is clear why Rodney is regarded as one of the foremost authorities on the medical aspects of medico-legal practice, and why his keynote speaking, coaching, and tutoring is so highly regarded by lawyers and doctors involved in such cases.

COURT DECISIONS PERTINENT TO SUICIDE RISK MANAGEMENT IN JAILS AND PRISONS

I am a forensic psychiatrist with experience and expertise in correctional health care administration and clinical practice. My area of expertise is suicide and wrongful death in jails and prisons. By researching and analyzing risk factors of suicide and developing prevention strategies, I have established considerable expertise in the field. As a consultant, I provide expert opinions and, if reasonable medical opinion, testimony on disputes such as standard of care, deliberate indifference, and civil rights violations. I have consulted on at least 70 cases under litigation in the United States and testified in at least 20 cases.

Introduction

During the last forty years, courts have attempted to address issues about legal liability related to suicide. The decisions cover various practices in jails and prisons, including diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, communication, policies, staffing, and training.

1          Inadequacy of mental health evaluation

In Comstock v. Mc Crary (1), psychologist Mc Crary did not perform an adequate psychological evaluation and risk assessment of an inmate who committed suicide. Had he done a detailed psychological evaluation, he would have known that several enemies who called him a snitch bothered the decedent.

2          Failure to identify obvious and substantial risk factors

In Williams v. Mehra (2), the significant issue involved a failure to identify an inmate’s substantial risk factors, including depression, psychiatric hospitalization, suicide ideation, and a previous suicide attempt with antidepressant tablets. The psychiatrists neglected to review the record that contained his diagnosis, suicidality, and specific treatment measure to address his suicidality, i.e., prescribing liquid medication.  Also, procedurally, the nurse failed to manage his medication on a watch take basis.

3                Psychotropic medication practice 

In Greason V. Kemp, (3), the Court held abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic medications of an inmate with a recent history of suicide attempts constituted deliberate indifference.  Greason killed himself in a Georgia prison. A doctor abruptly discontinued his antidepressant medication without reviewing his clinical file, conducting a mental status examination, or ordering close monitoring. The Court identified the department’s failure to train the staff, inadequate mental health care delivery, and delayed or denied treatment.

In Steele v. Shah, (4), a psychiatrist discontinued Steele’s psychiatric medications. Steele had a long history of depression, drug addiction, and attempted suicide twice before starting his long sentence.  The district court granted the psychiatrist’s motion for a summary judgment, indicating that his decision was nothing more than a disputed medical opinion. On appeal, the 11th  Circuit held that “psychiatric needs can constitute serious medical needs and that the quality of psychiatric care one receives can be so substantial a deviation from the accepted standards as to evidence deliberate indifference to serious psychiatric needs.”

4          Officers’ failure to communicate an arrestee’s suicide statements

In Gordon V. Kidd (5), the Court established that failure by an arresting officer to communicate to booking officers constitutes deliberate indifference.

In Conn v. City of Reno, (6) the Court of appeals reversed a district court’s grant of summary judgment in favor of two officers because there was “sufficient evidence to create a genuine fact regarding defendants’ “subjective awareness” of a serious medical need. 

In Freedman v. City of Allentown, (7), in contrast to Gordon v. Kidd and Conn v. City of Reno, the Court decided that a probation officer’s knowledge of an arrestee’s previous suicide attempt did not reach the threshold of deliberate indifference when he did not inform the arresting officer. Therefore, his actions were not intentional, malicious, or reckless, and “at most the averments against the officer amount to a lack of due care and are not actionable as a 1983 claim.” 

5          Suicidal ideation, suicide watch, and logging 

Mental health professionals often release inmates who deny suicidal ideation from suicide watch.  Some inmates intentionally conceal their true intentions after they make their decision to exit the world. 

In Woodard v. Myres, (8), the claims centered on the failure to institute standard suicide watch, lack of suicide watch monitoring and logging, premature discontinuation of suicide watch, and noncompliance with the facility’s policies and practice.

In Simmons v. Navajo County, (9) the Court opined that placing a pretrial detainee on suicide watch, even the highest level, standing alone “does not demonstrate that an official was subjectively aware of a substantial risk of imminent suicide.”  As per Simmons ‘ Court, determinants of imminent suicide risk include “observed suicidal actions, heard statements of suicidal, or witnessed evidence of suicidal intent,” indicating a strong likelihood of suicide.

In Hott v. Minnesota (10), falsification of suicide watch by an officer resulted in an unfavorable court decision for the officer.  

In Minix v. Canarecci (11), the district court opined that there was enough evidence to allow a jury to find a direct causal link between the Jail’s practice of classifying and releasing detainees from suicide watch and suicide.

In Broughton v. Premier Health Care Servs., (12), the issue was intentional concealment of suicidal ideation, making it difficult to stake a successful claim against correctional officials. The Court opined, “While Broughton’s disclaimer of suicidal ideation does not automatically insulate the defendants from liability, it does undermine the claim that they willfully ignored his past medical history and current symptomology.”

Strickler V. Mc Cord (13) illustrates the difficulty for jail officials charged with the care of inmates who are determined to commit suicide.  The Court found, “He lied on the intake form; he lied when questioned about suicidal thoughts at the Bowen Center, and he deceived the guards about his medication and the razor blades.” 

6          Recent Suicide attempt and failure to get prior medical records.

A recent suicide attempt is the most significant predictor of suicide. The courts have not opined on the recency of suicide attempt relevant to a liability claim. Clinically, a near-lethal suicide attempt within six months to a year has the most predictive value.  Failure to question an inmate about history of past suicide attempts can lead to potential liability. While some inmates intentionally withhold the information, the prior records serve as the most reliable vehicle to get such information. To prevail in a lawsuit, a plaintiff must establish the decedent previously made near-lethal suicide attempt/s/ 

In Terry v. Rice (14), County officials went out of their way not to collect information from the prison where the decedent was transferred, presumably for “safekeeping.”  In denying the summary judgment, the Court opined, “Going out of your way to avoid acquiring unwelcome knowledge is a species of intent. Being an ostrich involves a level of knowledge sufficient for a conviction of crimes requiring specific intent.”

In Mc Kee v. Turner, (!5) the treating psychiatrist was sued for failing to get prior jail records that indicated that the decedent had attempted suicide by hanging six weeks before he arrived at the prison. The dissenting judge opined, “McKee is distinguishable in one specific aspect, i.e., failure to obtain medical records.”  

7          Diagnosis and Treatment Issues 

Prisoners have claimed several diagnostic and treatment issues to support § 1983 claims. 

a)        Diagnosis of Mental illness

The diagnosis of a mental disorder or failure to diagnose per se does not support a claim of liability. While inmates diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder have a high degree of suicidal propensity, unless indicators of suicide vulnerability accompany the diagnosis, the claim is not sustainable.   

 The Courts have held that displays of erratic behavior or signs of mental illness, without specific indicia of suicidal tendency, “do not rise to the level of a serious risk of suicide” and do not provide “the level of notice” required to trigger the deliberate indifference standard (16, 17)   

b)        Incorrect diagnosis

In Steele v. Choi (18), the Court concluded incorrect diagnosis or improper treatment does not support an Eighth Amendment claim. In affirming a summary judgment in favor of Dr. Choi, the 7th Circuit opined, “Estelle requires us to distinguish between `deliberate indifference to serious medical needs on the one hand, and `negligence’ in diagnosing or treating a medical condition.”

c)         Intentional refusal to provide medical care.

Courts have acknowledged that intentionally refusing to respond to an inmate’s complaints, including repeated requests to see a mental health professional constituting deliberate indifference. Thus, to prevail, the plaintiff must establish the providers intentionally refused to provide medical care or denied access to a physician. Further, such refusal must cause the inmate undue suffering or threat of injury.

d)        Delay in treatment

Courts have established that repeated delays in treatment of medical or dental conditions support a claim of deliberate medical indifference (19, 20). However, isolated delays or delays due to the natural course of events in a facility and administrative procedures, not an uncommon occurrence in a correctional setting, may not be actionable.  

Delay of treatment claim depends on the length of delay, the nature of the medical need, and the reason for the delay (16)   In Harris v Coweta County, (21), the Court held that such “a delay created a genuine issue of material fact about deliberate indifference.”

Delay in responding to repeated requests to see a mental health professional by a potentially suicidal inmate may result in a liability claim.   In O’Quinn v. Lashbrook (22), the Court decided a claim of delayed treatment was meritorious.

e)        Improper medication or modality of treatment

Improper medication treatment and medical supervision by the psychiatrist can support a claim of deliberate indifference if it can be proved such improper medication treatment cause suicidal ideation and serious injury resulting in death. Prisoners are not entitled to a specific prescription or modality of treatment if the choice of medication prescribed by the physician or the modality of treatment addresses his medical need.

f)         Inadequate treatment

In Durmer V. O’Carroll, (23), the Court opined that all inadequate treatment provided to a prisoner could not be construed as deliberately indifferent. Instead, it can simply be “no more than mere negligence.” The Court further opined a failure or delay in providing prescribed treatment if deliberate and motivated by non-medical factors, a constitutional claim may be presented.

In Arenas v. GA Department Corrections, (24), the Court found that a failure to provide adequate treatment to a young inmate with a longstanding history of depression and bipolar disorder constituted deliberate indifference.

       g)  Inadequate monitoring of inmates in administrative segregation

Periodic reviews of inmate’s suitability to continued stay in administrative segregation is a standard procedure.  Courts have recognized “substantial risk of psychological harm and decompensation posed by extended placement in segregation” including anxiety, panic, paranoia, depression, PTSD, psychosis, and disintegration of a basic sense of self-identity (25, 26)

8)         Policy, staffing, and training 

In many deliberate indifference lawsuits, counties face Monell claims related to suicide prevention policy, mental health and correctional staffing, and training.

  1.    Absence of suicide prevention policy   

In White v. Watson (27), the Court opined that the absence of suicide prevention policy and lack of training and supervision were “the moving force behind the failure to protect the inmate from the known risk of suicide in the Jail.  

Other Court decisions show that for a successful claim based on the absence of suicide prevention policy, evidence must be presented to show a pattern of suicide or suicide attempts.

         2)        Policy or custom causing or contributing risk of harm.

In Gibson v. County of Washoe, (28) the Ninth Circuit opined that County’s failure to respond to the decedent’s urgent need for medical attention was a direct result of “an affirmative County policy that was deliberately indifferent, under the Farmer standard, to this need.”

In Gates v. Cook (29), the Court noted multiple policies or practices that combine to deprive a prisoner of a “single, identifiable human need,” such as mental health care, can support a finding of Eighth Amendment liability.

          3)        Shortage of staff

In Bragg v. Dunn (30), the Court found persistent and severe mental-health and correctional staff shortages, combined with chronic and significant overcrowding, as the “overarching issues that permeate” the contributing factors of inadequate mental health care and suicide.

            4)        Failure to Train

Failure to train the staff focuses on the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in City of Canton v. Harris  (31). A County can be found deliberately indifferent if it fails to train officers to recognize suicide indicators, policy issues, monitoring procedures.   Officers cannot be held liable for deliberate indifference “unless an inmate was so obviously mentally ill that the deputies, who had received no training regarding the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, must have known that [he] was exhibiting symptoms of mental illness” (28)

Conclusion

The court decisions noted above provide valuable insights and directions to develop appropriate risk management strategies in jails and prisons.

***

Note: This article is abstracted from my book in preparation, titled, “Suicide in Jails and prisons: preventive and legal perspectives.

References

  • Comstock v. Mc Crary, [2001], 273 F.3d 693, 6th Cir
  • Williams v. Mehra [1999], 186F, 3d 686,690,6th Cir
  • Greason v. Kemp, (1990) 891 F.2d 829 (11t h Cir
  • Steele v. Shah, [1996], 87 F 3rd 1166, 11th Cir
  • Gordon v. Kidd, (1992) 971 F.2d 1087, 1095, 4th Cir
  • Conn v. City of Reno, 591 F.3d at 1105, 9th Cir
  • Freedman v. City of Allentown (1988) 853 F.2d 1111, 1117, 3d Cir
  • Woodward v. Myres, (2002) No. 00 C 6010, 99 C 0290, at *1, N.D. Ill.
  • Simmons v. Navajo County, (2010) 609 F.3d 1011, 1018, 9th Ci
  • Hott ex rel. Estate of Hott v. Hennepin County, (2001) 260 F3d 901, 8th Cir   
  • Minix v. Canarecci, (2010) 597 F.3d 824, 833, 7th Cir
  • Broughton v. Premier Health Care Servs Inc, (2016), No. 15-4150, 6th          Cir
  • Strickler v. McCord, (2004) 306 F. Supp. 2d 818, N.D. Ind
  • Terry v. Rice, (2003) CAUSE No. IP00-0600-C K/H, at *1, S.D. Ind
  • McKee v. Turner, (1997) No. 96-3446, 1997 WL 525680, *3, 6th Cir
  • Jackson, 787 F.3d at 1354-56.
  • Cavalieri, 321 F.3d at 621
  • Steele v. Choi, (1996) 82 F.3d 175, 178, 7th Cir
  • Gutierrez v. Peters, (1997) 111 F.3d 1364, 1371, 7th Cir
  • Hunt v. Dental Dept. (1989) ,865 F.2d 198, 200, 9th Cir 
  • Harris v. Coweta County, (1994) 21 F.3d 388, 393-94, 11th
  •  O’Quinn v. Lashbrook,(2019) No. 18-cv-2013-SMY, S.D. Ill
  • Durmer v. O’Carroll, (1993) 991 F.2d 64, 69, 3d Cir
  • Arenas v. Ga. Dep’t of Corr, (2020) No. CV416-320, at *2, S.D. Ga.
  • Palakovic v. Wetzel,(2017) 854 F.3d 209, 225-26, 3d. Cir.
  • Braggs v. Dunn, (2019) 367 F. Supp. 3d 1340, 1344, M.D. Ala
  • White v. Watson, (2016) No. 16-cv-560-JPG-DGW, S.D. Ill.
  • Gibson v. County of Washoe, (2002) 290 F.3d 1175, 1189, 9th Cir
  • Gates v. Cook,(2004) 376 F.3d 323, 333, 5th Cir
  • Braggs v. Dunn, (2017) 257 F. Supp. 3d 1171, M.D. Ala
  • City of Canton v. Harris, (1989) 489 U.S. 378